The Comprehensive Peace Agreement Of Southern Sudan

The Abyei region, located near the historic border between North and South Sudan, established by the CPA, has been granted special administrative status. Abyei, which is defined in the agreement as a “bridge between North and South,” consists of the area of nine Ngok Dinka chiefs, transferred from south to north in 1905, while Sudan was under common Anglo-Egyptian rule. Under the provisions of the CPA, Abyei should be governed by an elected executive council. In addition, its inhabitants were considered citizens of the western state of Kordofan in the north and bahr al-Ghazal state in the south, and were represented in the parliaments of both states. At the end of the six-year period, the people of Abyei would decide whether to settle Abyei in the southern state of Bahr al-Ghazal or maintain their special administrative status in the north in the referendum originally scheduled for 9 January. The referendum is currently postponed sine die in the absence of an agreement on the conditions of eligibility for the vote. Under the aegis of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the Government of Sudan and SPLM/A signed a series of six agreements: the Wealth Sharing Agreement was one of the six CPA protocols. Revenue allocation provisions were an essential feature of the CPA, as the country is heavily dependent on oil revenues. This is especially true for the South, whose budget is 98% financed by oil revenues. Therefore, disagreement over control of oil fields and revenue distribution is the main threat to peace in Sudan, regardless of the outcome of the referendum.

The CPA ordered that 2 per cent of all revenues be shared by oil-producing countries, while the rest would be distributed equitably between the Government of South Sudan on the one hand, and the national government and the states of North Sudan, on the other. This revenue-sharing agreement will end in July 2011 – and probably sooner if the South separates – making a new sharing of oil revenues a priority for all parties. The SPLM announced its return to government on December 13, 2007 following an agreement. The agreement provides that the seat of government will pass every three months between Juba and Khartoum, although it seems that this will be largely symbolic, as well as the financing of a census (important for the referendum) and a timetable for the withdrawal of troops at the border. [3] Given the long history of the failure of negotiations between the ASC and SPLM/A, the signing of the CPA in January 2005 was welcomed by the governments of the north, south and foreign countries. The CPA established an interim constitution for Sudan, which established the division of power between the ASC and SPLM/A at the national level, which provided for a semi-autonomous regional government in the South led by SPLM/A, developed an oil revenue-sharing formula and called on the state to hold a referendum on self-determination in the South in 2011. The CPA signatories and international interlocutors who facilitated the agreement saw the period leading up to the referendum as an opportunity for the ruling ASC to launch democratic reforms, demonstrating the benefits of Sudanese unity and encouraging South Sudanese to vote against South Sudan`s independence in 2011. The national and southern funds for reconstruction and development will be created in conjunction with two trust funds for several donors. The final comprehensive agreement was signed on 9 January 2005 and marked the start of implementation work. The CPA created an asymmetrical federal system with a National Unity Government (GoNU), in which the South would have some representation, and a separate Southern Regional Government (GoSS).

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement Of Southern Sudan